A Review of Friction Welding Research to Address the Influence, Development, Similar & Dissimilar Welding

  • S. Senthil Murugan Rajalakshmi Engineering College (Autonomous), Chennai - 602105, Tamilnadu, India
  • P. Sathiya National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli - 620015, Tamilnadu, India
Keywords: faying surfaces, friction welding, dissimilar alloys, mechanical, heat affected zone


This review paper discusses the recent research work carried out in the frictional joining of dissimilar and similar alloys through the friction welding (FW) process with various parameters and modifications. It includes further the latest developments and advances in the research on FW and the influences of FW’s process parameters on the quality of joints and their properties. The specimens’ faying surfaces can also influence the joint properties as the surface modifications stimulate or change the metal joints’ bonding according to the welding parameters selected during FW. Though the rise of friction pressure (FP) during FW improves the strength of the joints, the improper selection of parameters leads to metal damage. It feels better if the axial shortening is less than 30 mm for FW of soft metals. The axial shortening values are less than 25 mm for the hemispherical bowl-type faying surfaces under 18 bar FP and it is noted that the bevel-type tapered faying surfaces increase the shortening. FW provided very narrow weld interfaces with around 5-10 µm width. With a low FP, it was possible to obtain a maximum of 100 % efficiency by modifying their faying surfaces. The small-diameter soft material needs less FP and friction time. The microstructure modification is possible and the weld joint is shown as U and V shapes for the bowl and tapered faying surfaces. It further increases the contact area and thus increases strength.

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